Istorijos transliacijos

Philippi mūšio laukas

Philippi mūšio laukas

Philippi mūšio laukas Graikijoje yra viena svarbiausių Romos istorijos užduočių. Būtent šioje vietoje Markas Antonijus ir Oktavianas nugalėjo Juliaus Cezario nužudžiusiųjų pajėgas, ypač Marcusą Juniusą Brutą ir Gajų Cassiusą Longinusą.

Filipų mūšio lauko istorija

Po Cezario nužudymo 44 pr. Abiejų pusių pajėgos galiausiai susitiko Graikijoje netoli senovės Filipų miesto.

Filipų mūšis buvo lemiamas Antrojo triumvirato karo įsitraukimas ir buvo didžiausias mūšis Graikijoje nuo persų invazijos.

Mūšis iš tikrųjų vyko dviem atskiromis užduotimis: viena spalio 3 d., 42 m. Pr. Kr., O kita - spalio 23 d. Pirmosios sužadėtuvės buvo sėkmingos abiem pusėms - nors Cassius atėmė gyvybę, manydamas, kad mūšis pralaimėtas. Antroji sužadėtuvė buvo Antonijaus ir Oktaviano pergalė, o Brutas taip pat mirė nuo savižudybės mūšio pasekmėse.

Kadangi abi pusės buvo gana tolygiai suderintos tiek dydžiu, tiek mokymu, abiejose pusėse buvo prarasta dešimtys tūkstančių gyvybių. Galų gale Bruto armija buvo išvaryta iš lauko, o po jo savižudybės jo armija buvo išgelbėta ir įtraukta į Oktavijaus ir Antonijaus kariuomenę.

Philippi mūšio laukas šiandien

Šiandien manoma, kad Filipų mūšio laukas yra už šiuolaikinio Krinideso miesto šiaurės vakarų Graikijoje.

Filipų (Filippoi) griuvėsiai šiuo metu saugomi kaip archeologinė vietovė ir yra mūšio lauko vietoje. Griuvėsiuose yra įspūdingų senovės miesto liekanų, kurias įkūrė išgyvenę mūšiai toje vietoje, kur, kaip manoma, buvo Bruto stovykla, ir toliau klestėjo.

Mūšio vieta yra taip gerai išsaugota, kad visa teritorija atrodo taip, kaip atrodė senovėje. Laukas yra atvira aikštelė, o miesto griuvėsiai yra iš dalies apriboti.

Jis yra saugomas kaip UNESCO pasaulio paveldo objektas.

Kelionė į Filipų mūšio lauką

Iš Filipų centro Krinideso miestą, už kurio yra mūšio laukas, per maždaug 10 minučių pasieksite per Epar.Od. Platamona - Adrianis kelias. Tai taip pat valandos pėsčiomis tuo pačiu maršrutu.

Artimiausias pagrindinis miestas yra Salonikai, iš kurio Krinides automobiliu galima pasiekti per mažiau nei dvi valandas keliais Egnatia Odos/EO Thessalonikis-Kavalas/A2.


Filipų mūšis

The Filipų mūšis buvo paskutinis mūšis Antrojo triumvirato karuose tarp Marko Antonijaus ir Oktaviano (antrojo triumvirato) pajėgų ir Julijaus Cezario žudikų Marcuso Juniuso Bruto ir Gajaus Cassius Longinuso pajėgų 42 m. pr. Kr., Filipuose Makedonijoje. Antrasis triumviratas paskelbė šį pilietinį karą, kad atkeršytų Julijaus Cezario nužudymui.

Mūšį sudarė dvi sužadėtuvės lygumoje į vakarus nuo senovės Filipų miesto. Pirmasis įvyko pirmąją spalio savaitę, Brutas susidūrė su Oktavianu, o Antonijaus pajėgos priešinosi Kasijaus pajėgoms. Iš pradžių Brutas atstūmė Oktavianą ir pateko į savo legionų stovyklą. Tačiau pietuose Kasijus buvo nugalėtas Antonijaus ir nusižudė išgirdęs melagingą pranešimą, kad Brutas taip pat patyrė nesėkmę. Brutas sutelkė likusius Kasijaus karius ir abi pusės liepė savo kariuomenei su savo grobiu trauktis į stovyklas, ir mūšis iš esmės buvo lygus, bet dėl ​​Cassius savižudybės. Antrasis susitikimas, įvykęs spalio 23 d., Baigė Bruto pajėgas ir jis nusižudė savo ruožtu, palikdamas triumviratą valdyti Romos Respubliką.


Filipų mūšis 42 m

Filipų mūšis 42 m. Pr. M. E. Buvo romėnų romanas, kurį kovojo jaunasis Oktavianas, išrinktas Julijaus Cezario įpėdinis, ir gyvsidabris Markas Antonijus, plačiai laikomas didžiausiu gyvu romėnų generolu iš vienos pusės prieš Brutusą ir Cassius, žudikus. Cezario ir respublikonų reikalų čempionai. Mūšyje, esančiame vidaus lygumoje, esančioje Rytų Makedonijoje, netoli Filipų miesto, dalyvaus didžiausios Romos armijos, kada nors išėjusios į lauką, ir, susidūrus 36 legionams, kruvinas rezultatas lems Romos imperijos ateitį ir galiausiai pabaigos 500 metų Romos respublika.

Prologas

44 m. Pr. M. E. Kr. Markas Antonijus ir Gaiusas Octavianas, geriausiai pasiekęs Cezario generolas ir jo išrinktasis įpėdinis, sudarė nelengvą aljansą atkeršyti diktatoriaus žudikams ir atkurti respublikos tvarką. Po pirminio susitaikymo su sąmokslininkais Antonijus bandė atstumti Brutą ir Kasijų, paskirdamas juos Romos grūdų tiekimo iš Azijos ir Sicilijos prižiūrėtojais. Pozicijos buvo atsisakytos ir abu vyrai paliko Romą į rytus. Tuo tarpu Octavianas pradėjo sėkmingą kampaniją, siekdamas padidinti savo populiarumą tarp žmonių, remdamas viešų žaidimų seriją. Tačiau Antonijus buvo užpultas Cicerono, kuris norėjo visiškai nepriklausomo Senato ir palaikė Oktavianą. Tačiau net jei Antonijus buvo antras geriausias politinėje arenoje, jis vis tiek kontroliavo kariuomenę ir keturis savo Makedonijos legionus atgabeno į Italiją, kad parvežtų namo savo poziciją.

Skelbimas

Įvykiai pasikeitė, kai Antonis spalio 44 d. Pr. Supykę dėl to, kad Antonijus nesiėmė ryžtingų veiksmų prieš Cezario žudikus, kariai perėjo ištikimybę į Octavianą, kuris jiems pasiūlė didesnį finansinį atlygį. Senas skirtumas tarp šių dviejų ambicingų vyrų, kad vienas turėjo politinę galią, o kitas karinį, dabar nebėra. Be to, kiti legionai ėmė mesti ištikimybę Oktavianui po kojomis. Antonijus atsakė nustatydamas, kad Senatas perskirsto svarbias provincijas savo ištikimiems šalininkams. To pasekmė buvo susitaikymas su Cezario žudikais. Kitas Cezarį nužudęs sąmokslininkas Decimas Brutus ignoravo perskirstymą ir, iškeldamas du legionus, užėmė stotį Mutinoje (Modenoje). Antonijus, vis dar turintis tris legionus, apgulė įtvirtintą miestą. Tuo tarpu, dabar remiamas Senato, Oktavianas perėmė keturių legionų vadovybę ir paskelbė Antonijų kaltu dėl audros, arba pilietinės netvarkos, likus vienam žingsniui iki karo paskelbimo prieš jo didįjį varžovą dėl Romos imperijos kontrolės.

Mūšiai aplink Mutiną balandžio 43 d. Pr. Kr. Buvo tokie pat sumišę, kaip ir įvairūs prieštaringi senovės istorikų pasakojimai, tačiau galutinis rezultatas buvo tas, kad Antonijus iš pradžių buvo nugalėtojas, bet vėliau iš dalies nugalėtas, respublikonai laimėjo, bet prarado abu konsulus, o Oktavianas buvo nusiminęs, kad jam nebuvo suteikta triumfavo Senatas ir buvo susvetimėjęs dėl jų sprendimo pavesti Sextus Pompey vaduoti karinį jūrų laivyną. Kol Oktavianas manipuliavo politika Romoje, Antonijus sustiprino savo poziciją ir dabar valdė Galiją ir Ispaniją. Oktavianas taip pat padarė lemiamą žingsnį 43 m. -Respublikiniai legionai. Oktavianas, dabar turintis 17 legionų, visą dėmesį nukreipė į Antonijų, kuriam vadovavo 20 legionų ir 10 000 kavalerijų. Nors ir dabar vyravo diplomatija, o trys pagrindiniai romėnai - Antonijus, Oktavianas ir Lepidusas - susitiko lapkričio 43 d. carte blanche valdžią penkerius metus atitinkamose imperijos zonose. Legionai buvo permaišyti taip, kad Lepidus Romoje turėjo tris legionus, o Octavianas ir Antonijus-po 20. Po to Romoje respublikonų šalininkams buvo kerštas kerštas ir įvykdytos tokios žymios asmenybės kaip Ciceronas.

Skelbimas

Tuo tarpu Brutas surinko savo armiją Aukštojoje Makedonijoje, o Cassius sukaupė 12 legionų Judėjoje. 43 m. Pr. Kr. Abu suvienijo jėgas Smyrnoje. Tada, po sėkmingų kampanijų prieš Rodą ir Ksantą, jiedu užėmė poziciją Filipuose Hellespont mieste rugsėjo 42 d. Trečioji grėsmė Oktavianui ir Antonijui buvo Sekstas Pompėjus, kurio didelis karinis jūrų laivynas padėjo jam perimti Sicilijos kontrolę 43 m. Oktavianas, negalėdamas nugalėti Sekso, vietoj to paisė Antonijaus prašymo kartu kovoti su didesne Bruto ir Kasijaus grėsme. Iš Brundizio abi armijos kirto Adrijos jūrą. Pirmą kartą priešingi legionai buvo arti ir pasiruošę kovai.

Vadai

Marcusas Juniusas Brutusas, nors anksčiau buvo sėkmingas mažesniuose konfliktuose Trakijoje ir Lykijoje, tačiau istorijoje buvo vertinamas kaip šiek tiek per švelnus ir neturintis autoriteto, kai kalbama apie rimtą generalinį vadovavimą didelėms armijoms rinktinėse kovose, ir todėl jis daugelį istorikų apibūdino labiau kaip valstybės veikėją, o ne karinį vadą. Kita vertus, kitas respublikonų lyderis Gaius Cassius Longinus buvo įgijęs įžvalgaus generolo ir griežto drausmininko reputaciją - nugalėjęs partus 51 m. Pr. M. E. Ir pusę Juliaus Cezario laivyno per pilietinį karą, kai jis buvo Pompėjaus pusėje. Tada ši pora buvo keista, bet didžiulė vadovaujanti komanda, tačiau jiems nepasisekė, kad dabar jie susidūrė su dviem didžiausiais visų laikų Romos lyderiais.

Prenumeruokite nemokamą savaitinį el. Pašto naujienlaiškį!

Marcusas Antonijus, geriau žinomas kaip Markas Antonijus, iki Filipų jau turėjo žvilgančią karinę karjerą ir ilgą sėkmę kaip Cezario dešinioji ranka ir žirgo meistras. Antonis buvo blogai vadovavęs taikos metu ir pernelyg lengvai apleido politiką laukinėms partijoms, tačiau mūšio chaose ir siaubuose jis buvo niekuo neišsiskiriantis. Jo sąjungininkas, nors ir paprastas patogumas nugalėti bendrą priešą, buvo Gajus Julijus Cezaris Oktavianas. Techniškai Oktavianas, išrinktas dabar dievinto Julijaus Cezario įpėdiniu, buvo dievo sūnus, tačiau tai užmaskavo jo palyginti kuklią kilmę. Oktavianas ir toliau taps pirmuoju ir, be abejo, didžiausiu Romos imperatoriumi, tačiau Filipuose jis vis dar buvo jaunas ir nepatyręs vadas, o dar blogiau, kad mūšio metu jį kamavo sveikatos problemos, todėl Antonijus taip ir norėjo. daug kartų anksčiau pavogkite karinę kalkių šviesą. Drąsus ir neatsargus, bet taip dažnai pasisekęs Antonis dar kartą puikiai atliktų tą vaidmenį, kuriam, atrodo, gimė.

Armijos ir ginklai

Dvi romėnų armijos, susidūrusios Filipuose, buvo sudarytos iš nusistovėjusių karinių dalinių-legionų. Legioną sudarė 4800 vyrų, suskirstytų į 10 kohortų ir 60 amžių. Kiekvienam legionui vadovavo legatas (legati), kuriam padėjo karinės tribūnos (tribunimilitum). Kiekvienam šimtmečiui iš priekio vadovavo šimtininkas ir seržantas (tesserarius) o optio (pavaduotojas) sutvarkė galą. Paprastas legionierius buvo ginkluotas Gladijaus trumpu kardu (dviašmeniu ir maždaug 60 cm ilgio), pilum ietis ar ietis, a pugio durklą, ir jis turėjo skruostų skydą (maždaug metro aukščio, pagamintą iš medžio ir apkalta geležimi), pašto šarvus ir šalmą. Kiekvieną legioną papildė 300 kavalerijos pajėgų, stropininkų, lankininkų ir kitų lengvojo ginklo pagalbininkų.

Skelbimas

Atidarymo pozicijos

Mūšyje dalyvaus didžiausias karių skaičius romėnų kare iki to momento. 19 legionų iš 110 000 vyrų Triumvirato pusėje susidūrė su 17 respublikonų legionų iš 90 000 vyrų. Triumvirai turėjo 13 000 raitelių ir vieną papildomą legioną, esančius netoliese esančiame Amfipolyje, o respublikonai turėjo du legionus, saugančius laivyną, ir 17 000 kavalerijos pajėgų lygumoje. Respublikonų kariuomenė tada buvo ne tik mažesnė, bet ir sudaryta iš įvairesnio karių, paimtų iš visos imperijos, mišinio. Be to, daugelis veteranų ir visų svarbių šimtininkų daug kartų kovojo dėl Julijaus Cezario, todėl iki šiol susidūręs su jo įpėdiniu ir geriausiu generolu, turėjo būti griežtai išbandytas karių ryžtas ir ištikimybė.

Lauke Cassius pasinaudojo dviem piliakalniais, esančiais virš Filipų lygumos, kad padarytų dvi įtvirtintas stovyklas savo devyniems legionams. Brutas ir jo aštuoni legionai stovyklavo kalnų papėdėje, o dviejų respublikonų kariuomenių sujungimui buvo pastatytas koridorius su paklodėmis. Abi stovyklos gavo papildomą apsaugą nuo Gangitų upės. Šios dvi stovyklos buvo nutolusios 2,7 km atstumu, o tai reiškia, kad abi armijos negalėjo lengvai pasiūlyti savitarpio paramos. Todėl Antonijus sutelkė dėmesį į Cassius stovyklą ir, būdamas bravūras, įkūrė savo dešimties legionų armiją gerai įtvirtintoje stovykloje, esančioje vos už 1,5 km nuo priešo. Po dešimties dienų atvyko Oktaviano devynių legionų armija. Nepaisant to, respublikonai turėjo visus geresnės tiekimo linijos ir aukštesnės padėties privalumus, todėl laikas buvo jų pusėje. Triumvirai turėtų imtis iniciatyvos.

Pirmasis Filipų mūšis

Keli ankstyvieji Antonijaus ir Oktaviano bandymai nuvesti priešą į lygumą visiškai nepavyko. Dėl to Antonijus, vis dar demonstruodamas kariuomenės manevrus lygumoje, bandė nepastebėtas kirsti nendrių pelkes, pastatydamas pylimą ir, už respublikonų stovyklų, bandė nutraukti jų tiekimo linijas. Cassius netruko strategijos ir reagavo, bandydamas nutraukti Antonijaus priešakines pajėgas, pats pastatydamas skersinę sieną nuo savo stovyklos iki pelkių. Matydamas, kad jo planas buvo atrastas, spalio 3 -ąją Antonijus surengė tiesioginį puolimą prie Cassius sienos ir pribloškė priblokštą kairįjį priešo šoną ir sunaikino jų įtvirtinimus. Tada, kai didžioji dalis Cassius armijos buvo įtraukta į lygumą, Antonijus išvyko tiesiai į didžiąją Cassius stovyklą. Kai viskas nusirito prieš Cassius legionus lygumoje ir pamačius jų stovyklą, prasidėjo chaotiškas atsitraukimas.

Skelbimas

Tuo tarpu Brutui gerai sekėsi prieš Oktaviano legionus, kurie, netikėtai užklupę Bruto pernelyg trokštančių avansinių pajėgų, dėl kurių reikėjo sutelkti paramą visai respublikonų kariuomenei, buvo pakelti į chaotišką mūšį, kurio metu buvo užimta Oktaviano stovykla. Laimei, Oktavianas - vėl susirgęs ir nepraleidęs mūšio - prisiglaudė pelkėse ir išvengė tam tikro sugavimo. Brutas, sužinojęs apie Cassiuso stovyklos praradimą, atsiuntė pastiprinimą, tačiau Cassius, nedidelėmis pajėgomis pasitraukęs į Filipų akropolį, aiškino jas kaip daugiau Antano pajėgų ir taip nusižudė - kaip atsitiko, per jo gimtadienį -, o ne būti užfiksuotas. Kol visa tai vyko, Antono ir Oktaviano rezervinės kariuomenės, atplaukusios jūra, buvo sunaikintos respublikonų laivyno, kertančios Adrijos jūrą. Taigi pirmasis Filipų mūšis daugmaž baigėsi lygiosiomis 1: 1, respublikonų pusėje pralaimėjo 9 tūkst. Ir daugiau nei dvigubai viršijo Oktaviano kariuomenės skaičių.

Antrasis Filipų mūšis

Po pirmojo mūšio abi pusės grįžo į savo pradines stovyklas, kad galėtų persigrupuoti. Brutas, perėmęs Cassius stovyklą, stengėsi laikytis savo pirminio plano laikyti stotį, kol priešas nebus priverstas trauktis dėl nuostatų stokos. Brutas priekabiavo prie priešo naktiniais išpuoliais prieš jų poziciją ir netgi nukreipė upę, kad nuplautų dalį jų stovyklos. Neturėdami atsargų ir praradę atsargas Adrijos jūroje, Antonijus ir Oktavianas turėjo persikelti dar prieš prasidedant žiemai ir privertė juos palikti aikštę. Iš pradžių Brutas stoiškai priešinosi pakartotiniams priešo tyčiojimams, kad išeitų ir susidurtų su jais, tačiau galiausiai, bent jau senovės Romos istorikų teigimu, nepaisoma drausmės, o Bruto armija ėmėsi savo iniciatyvos ir nusileido į lygumą.

Tuo tarpu Antonijus taip pat padarė drąsių ir ryžtingų žingsnių. Pirma, jis visapusiškai pasinaudojo nedideliu piliakalniu į pietus nuo Bruto stovyklos, kurį respublikonų lyderis paliko nesaugomą (ir tai nepaisant to, kad Cassius anksčiau jame buvo įrengęs garnizoną). Pastatę vytelių palizę, keturi legionai dabar buvo pavojingai arti Bruto pozicijos. Tuo pat metu Antonijus perkėlė dešimt legionų į centrinę pelkės zoną ir dar du - šiek tiek toliau į rytus. Brutas atsakė, pastatydamas įtvirtintą stovyklą priešais kiekvieną iš šių dviejų priešo karių blokų, tačiau jei mūšio linijos būtų pratęstos dar toliau, Brutas būtų izoliuotas nuo savo atsargų ir atremtas į kalnus -neįmanoma pozicija gintis. Tuomet respublikonų kariuomenei neliko nieko kito, kaip tik įsitraukti į priešą visu mastu. Pasibaigė nesklandumų laikas.

Skelbimas

Artilerijos ginklų naudojimas tokio sandariai supakuoto mūšio lauko ribose buvo laikomas nepraktišku, o priešingos armijos iškart susirėmė bauginančioje kovoje. Iš pradžių respublikonai gerai elgėsi prieš kairįjį priešo sparną, tačiau Brutas, turėdamas mažiau karių, ištempė savo linijas, kad išvengtų manevro. Pasekmė buvo tai, kad Antonijus nenumaldomai stumtelėjo į priekį ir sutriuškino priešo centrą ir, judėdamas į kairę, puolė Bruto linijų galą. Respublikonų kariuomenės tvarka dabar visiškai žlugo ir kilo chaosas. Tuo tarpu Oktavianas užpuolė respublikonų stovyklą, o Antonijus panaudojo savo kavaleriją, kad persekiotų Brutą ir neleistų jam pabėgti. Respublikonų lyderis rado prieglobstį netoliese esančiuose kalnuose, tačiau kai jo keturi likę legionai persikėlė prašyti malonės iš Antonio, Brutas atėmė gyvybę. Iš viso pasidavė 14 000 kareivių, o kai kuriems kitiems pavyko pabėgti laivu į Thasą, respublikonų reikalas baigėsi ir Julius Cezaris nužudė. Ovidijaus žodžiais tariant, "visi drąsūs nusikaltėliai, kurie, nepaisydami dievų, suteršė vyriausiojo kunigo galvą [Cezarį], krito nusipelnę mirtimi. Filipas yra liudytojas ir tie, kurių kaulai balina jo žemę".

Pasekmės

Nors Antonijus buvo vadinamas imperatorius tiek nugalėtojų, tiek pralaimėtojų, Oktavianas, kuris atkakliau elgėsi su pralaimėjusiaisiais, nebuvo taip vertinamas. Plutarchas neabejotinai pareiškė: „[Oktavianas] nepadarė nieko verto susieti, o visa sėkmė ir pergalė buvo Antonijaus“. Legionai vėl buvo paskirstyti, o Antonis pasiėmė aštuonis į kampaniją prieš „Parthia“, o Octavianas su trimis grįžo į Italiją. Mūšis, kurio metu žuvo 40 000 žmonių ir vėliau buvo atkeršyta respublikonų simpatijoms, apiplėšė Romą iš geriausių jos piliečių ir kareivių, tačiau klausimas, kas valdys Romą, nebuvo išspręstas. Nepaisant to, kad, nepaisant akivaizdžių Antonijaus karinių įgūdžių, galų gale tai būtų Oktaviano politiniai įgūdžiai ir genialumas, skatinantis lojalumą iš kitų, talentingesnių vadų, tokių kaip Marcusas Agrippa, ir tai užtikrintų, kad Antoniui netaptų Cezariu. Po kelerių metų kovos ir intrigų būtent Oktavianas bus tikrasis Filipo nugalėtojas ir galiausiai, po Antonio pralaimėjimo Actiumo mūšyje 31 m. Romos imperatorių.


Filipas

Tai, kas taps pirmuoju organizuotu pilietinio karo sausumos mūšiu, prasidėjo nuo Sąjungos bandymo apsaugoti Vakarų Virdžinijos geležinkelius. Sąjungos generolas majoras George'as B. McClellanas, likus keliems mėnesiams iki tampant vyriausiuoju generolu, buvo Ohajo departamento vadas. Jis įsakė kariams į Vakarų Virdžiniją apsaugoti svarbų Baltimorės ir Ohajo geležinkelį ir galbūt atverti kelią į Ričmondą.

McClellanas įsakė 3 tūkst. Generolas Thomasas A. Morrisas į Filipų miestą Barbūro grafystėje. Jie buvo išsiųsti apsaugoti gyvybiškai svarbias upių perėjas ir svarbų geležinkelio mazgą. Sąjungos vadovai sužinojo, kad Filipų mieste buvo apie 800 naujai užverbuotų Konfederacijos karių, kuriems vadovavo pulkininkas George'as Porterfieldas. Dauguma jų buvo žalios spalvos ir dar nebuvo suskirstytos į pulkus.

Morrisas sugalvojo miestelio judėjimą. Maždaug 1600 Sąjungos karių iš Indianos, Ohajo ir Vakarų Virdžinijos, vadovaujami pulkininko Benjamino Kelley, įliptų į traukinius į rytus, manydami, kad jie eina link „Harper's Ferry“. Tada jie išsilaipino Torntono mieste ir žygiavo į pietus iki užpakalinės Filipų pusės. Tuo pačiu metu apie 1400 vyrų, vadovaujami pulkininko Ebenezerio Dumonto, kuriam padėjo vienas iš McClellano padėjėjų pulkininkas Frederickas W. Landeris, žygiuotų tiesiai į pietus iki Filipų. Kartu jie apsuptų miestą, o šautuvas būtų signalas pulti.

Po vienos nakties mūšio, kupino lietaus, abu kontingentai atvyko į Filipus birželio 3 d. Per akistatą tarp Humphrieso ir jos sūnų pasiklydusių Sąjungos karių ji iššovė pistoletu. Susirinkę vyrai jį paėmė už sutvarkytą simbolį, todėl puolimas prasidėjo per anksti. Konfederatai nesugebėjo paskelbti piketų, todėl buvo visiškai nustebinti, kai Sąjungos artilerijos užtvanka juos pažadino iš miego. Kai kurie sugebėjo šaudyti į besiveržiančius jankus, bet nesugebėjo tvirtai apsiginti. Netrukus jie palūžo ir pasitraukė į pietus. Kelley vyrai atvyko netinkamu keliu ir nesugebėjo užblokuoti atsitraukimo. Kelley buvo nušauta persekiojant, o Landeris parodė drąsų jojimo šou, važiuodamas stačia kalva per krūmus. Konfederatai trauksis iki Huttonsville, beveik 50 mylių į pietus. Įnirtingas atsitraukimas privers žurnalistus mūšį pavadinti „Lenktynėmis Filipuose“.

Nors aukų buvo nedaug, šis mūšis turėjo didelį poveikį karui, vos dviejų mėnesių. Pirma, pergalė paskatino McClellaną atsidurti šalies dėmesio centre ir liepą jis taps Potomako armijos vadu. Tai taip pat sustiprintų Antrojo rato konvencijos moralę, kuri balsuotų už Virdžinijos atsiskyrimo tvarkos panaikinimą, vedančią Vakarų Virdžiniją į valstybingumo kelią. Filipuose įvyko keletas pirmųjų karo amputacijų mūšio lauke. Konfederatas Jamesas E. Hangeris mūšyje neteko kojos, tačiau grįžęs namo sukūrė iš dirbtinių kojelių dirbtinę koją su vyriu ties keliu. Po karo jis užpatentavo dizainą ir įkūrė „Hanger Orthopedic Group“, kuri šiuo metu yra pirmaujanti JAV protezavimo įmonė.


Rezultatai

Filipas buvo pirmasis organizuotas sausumos veiksmas kare, o Sąjungos pergalė šioje santykinai be kraujos mūšyje paskatino McClellaną atsidurti nacionalinės dėmesio centre. Šiaurės spauda, ​​alkanas mūšio istorijų, ją pristatė kaip epinį triumfą, ragindama politikus reikalauti didelės pažangos Ričmonde, kuris tapo „Bull Run“. Tai taip pat paskatino daugiau vokalinių protestų vakarinėje Virdžinijos dalyje prieš atsiskyrimą. Po kelių dienų Wheeling konvencijos profsąjungininkai panaikino Virdžinijos atsiskyrimo potvarkį ir paskyrė gubernatoriumi Francisą H. Pierpontą.

Buvo dvi didelės konfederacijos aukos. Abu buvo gydomi mūšio lauko amputacijomis, manoma, kad tai buvo pirmosios tokios karo operacijos. Vienas buvo Virdžinijos karo instituto kariūnas Fauntleroy Daingerfield. Kitas konfederatas buvo 18-metis kolegijos studentas Jamesas E. Hangeris. Pasveikęs ir paleistas, Hangeris grįžo namo į Virdžiniją. Jis pagamino dirbtinę koją iš statinės karnizų su vyriais ties keliu. Jo dizainas veikė taip gerai, kad Virdžinijos valstijos įstatymų leidėjas pavedė jam pagaminti „lingquanHanger Limb & rdquo“ kitiems sužeistiems kariams. Po karo „Hanger“ užpatentavo savo protezavimo prietaisą ir įkūrė dabartinę „Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc.“. Nuo 2007 m. „Hanger Orthopedic Group“ yra JAV dirbtinių galūnių gamybos rinkos lyderė.

Po mūšio pulkininką Porterfieldą Vakarų Virdžinijos valstijoje vadovavo Konfederacijos pajėgoms. Generolas Robertas S. Garnettas. Konfederacijos naujokų kuopos, buvusios Filipuose, tapo įvairių pulkų dalimi, įskaitant 9 -ąjį Virdžinijos pėstininkų batalioną, 25 -ąjį Virdžinijos pėstininką, 31 -ąjį Virdžinijos pėstininką, 11 -ąjį Virdžinijos kavaleriją ir 14 -ąjį Virdžinijos kavaleriją. Barboro lengvojo arklio kavalerija, kuriai vadovavo kapitonas Williamas Jenkinsas, pasitraukė iš Filipų.


„FILIPPI BATTLE“ („PHILIPPI BATTLEFIELD“)

Filipų mūšis buvo lemiamas Antrojo triumvirato karo įsitraukimas. Kaip ir Pharsalus mūšis, Filipas taip pat vyko Graikijoje, nes tai buvo didžiausias sužadėtuvės Graikijoje nuo persų invazijos. Philippi taip pat turėjo lemiamą reikšmę tolesniam opozicijos silpnėjimui dėl Julio-Klaudų dinastijos iškilimo Romoje. Priešindamiesi buvusiems Julijaus Cezario sąjungininkams, vieni ryškiausių Romos istorijos lyderių kovojo kiekvienoje pusėje. Taip pat kaip Pharsalus, Filipas buvo įamžintas literatūroje, labiausiai žinomas Williamo Shakespeare'o pjesėse. Mūšyje krito kai kurie didžiausi respublikos čempionai, kurie taip pat buvo trumpo Marko Anthony pakilimo liudininkai.

Istorija

Po Pompėjaus pralaimėjimo Pharsalus mieste nugalėtojai susivienijo už Julijaus Cezario ir Romoje suformavo naują vyriausybę. Tačiau Cezaris greitai pradėjo įtvirtinti pernelyg didelę valdžią sau ir savo namams, Romos senate sukeldamas nuogąstavimus, kad jis nustato pagrindą visiškam vyriausybės perėmimui. Dauguma senatorių, vadovaujami Bruto ir Cassius, perėmė reikalus į savo rankas ir garsiai nužudė Julių Cezarį kovo Ides.

Manydami, kad Julių grėsmė jau baigėsi, sąmokslininkai visiškai nepasiruošė Cezario šeimos ir draugų kerštui. Laidotuvėse Markas Antonijus pasakė pamaldas, kurios buvo Romos žmonių šauksmas, sukėlęs minią prieš senatorius. Tai beveik iš karto sukėlė Antrojo triumvirato karą.

Kaip ir Pompėjus prieš juos, Brutas ir Cassius pabėgo į Graikiją, kur disponavo didele kariuomene. Jie įkūrė gynybines pozicijas Filipuose, kur laukė Marko Antonijaus ir Oktavijaus Cezario. Abi pusės susirėmė 42 m. Kampaniją iš tikrųjų sudarė keli mūšiai, kuriuose dvi didžiulės ir maždaug lygios armijos kelis kartus susirėmė.

Iki mėnesio pabaigos abi pusės norėjo greitai užbaigti, nes tiekimas, tiek moralė mažėjo abiejose armijose. Kadangi abi armijos buvo beveik tolygiai suderintos pagal dydį, įrangą ir mokymą, mūšis buvo mažiau susijęs su strategija, nei buvo galima tikėtis. Po to įvykęs slogfestas nusiaubė armijas, kiekviena pusė nukentėjo dešimtis tūkstančių aukų. Galų gale Bruto kariuomenė buvo išvaryta iš lauko ir, nors ir nenusileidusi, sąmokslininkas pajuto pralaimėjimą ir nusižudė. Jo išlikusios pajėgos buvo išgelbėtos ir įtrauktos į Oktavijaus ir Antonijaus armiją.

Lankymasis

Senovės Filipų miesto griuvėsiai šiuo metu saugomi kaip archeologinė vietovė, o apylinkės išlieka nesugadintos. Dėl šios priežasties mūšio laukas, esantis į vakarus nuo griuvėsių, iš esmės yra išsaugotas, o visa teritorija atrodo taip, kaip atrodė senovėje. Manoma, kad Filipo miesto, kurį įkūrė išgyvenę mūšį, griuvėsiai stovi toje vietoje, kur buvo Bruto stovykla.


Mūšis

„Philippi Races“

Pulkininkas Kelley vadovavo 1600 Sąjungos karių, siekiančių užimti Filipą, kuris kontroliavo gyvybiškai svarbų Beverli-Fairmont Turnpike. Jo vyrai planavo pulti miestelio užpakalį, kai pulkininko Ebenezerio Dumonto Indianos kariai žygiuos į miestą iš Websterio šiaurėje, sukurdami dvigubą apvalkalą. Birželio 2 d. Sąjungos pajėgos išvyko į Filipą, o konfederacijos prijaučiančioji ir po to kilusi Sąjungos artilerijos ugnis įspėjo konfederatus apie Sąjungos požiūrį. Dauguma konfederatų, kai kurie vis dar apsirengę lovos drabužiais, tiesiog palūžo ir bėgo, o Sąjunga pasišaipydama pavadino mūšį „Filipų lenktynėmis“. Pulkininkas Frederikas W. Landeris pademonstravo puikius jojimo įgūdžius ir drąsiai puolė nuo stačios kalvos, persekiodamas konfederatus. Deja, Kelley kolona atvyko iš šiaurės netinkamu keliu ir negalėjo užblokuoti Konfederacijos atsitraukimo. Po Sąjungos pergalės žuvo arba buvo sužeisti 4 federaliniai ir 26 sukilėlių kariai, o tai buvo propagandinė Sąjungos ir vietos sąjungininkų reikalo pergalė.

Antras mūšis

Sąjungos užpuolimas Filipui

Netrukus po to konfederatai grįžo galingi, jiems vadovavo Innis McArthur, kuris vadovavo 4314 Konfederacijos pėstininkams, 159 kavalerijai ir 6 patrankai, kad vėl užimtų miestą. Potomako I korpuso armija (4 255 pėstininkai, 224 kavalerija ir 20 ginklų), kuriai vadovavo generolas Gabrielis Millineris, žygiavo atgauti miesto, o McArthuras vadovavo šturmui prieš miestą su nedidelėmis kovotojų ir pėstininkų pajėgomis. Ši jėga atlaikė konfederatų kovotojų išpuolius iš uolos kairėje kelio pusėje ir iš miško dešinėje pusėje, atbaidydama priešininkus prieš kovojant su Konfederacijos pajėgomis mieste. Millinerį sustiprino kavalerijos, pėstininkų ir artilerijos pajėgos, vadovaujamos Kelly Walton, ir šios pajėgos padėjo Millinerio pajėgoms užpulti miestą. Konfederatai buvo priblokšti skaičiumi pranašesnių pajėgų, o Sąjungos pajėgos ėjo per upę ir užpuolė kitą miesto pusę, kurioje buvo jo gyvybiškai svarbi traukinių stotis. Sąjungos pajėgos, nepaisydamos didelio pasipriešinimo, paėmė miestą ir įsitvirtino bei ruošėsi atvykti į Konfederacijos pajėgas, įskaitant šarvuotą traukinį.

Sąjungos gynyba Filipas

Antroje mūšio pusėje Sąjungos pajėgos laikėsi už dantų odos, atremdamos daugumą pranašesnių Konfederacijos pajėgų atakų, kol jas galėjo sustiprinti majoro Edvardo Bruce'o, Colquitt'o ir Milroy brigados. Vėlesniame mūšyje Bruce'as žuvo, tačiau Sąjungos pajėgos sustiprino savo pozicijas padedamos pastiprinimo ir surengė kontrataką. Sąjungos pajėgos aplenkė konfederatus ūkio laukuose ir pristatė nuvysčiusias užtvaras. Tuo pat metu Sąjungos artilerija sunaikino Konfederacijos šarvuotąjį traukinį. Galiausiai konfederatai buvo priversti trauktis, patirti didelių nuostolių. Sąjunga prarado 1765 pėstininkus, 4 ginklus (ir 111 įgulos narių) ir 134 raitelius, be to, dingo 120 vyrų, o konfederatai prarado 3051 pėstininką, 2 ginklus (ir 52 vyrus), 127 raitelius ir 205 dingusius be žinios. Tarp Sąjungos žuvusiųjų buvo majoras Bruce'as, o majorai Kelly Walton ir Wade Scales buvo sužeisti, o majoras Gene Zook buvo pakeltas į pulkininką leitenantą.

Praėjus kelioms dienoms po Filipų, Vakarų Virdžinijos unionistinės apygardos panaikino Virdžinijos atsiskyrimo potvarkį Wheeling konvencijoje ir savo gubernatoriumi paskyrė Francisą H. Pierpontą.


Philippi mūšio lauko kapinės - Fallout 76

Philippi mūšio lauko kapinės yra viena iš Toxic Valley regiono vietų „Fallout 76“ (FO76). Žaidėjai gali pasiekti vietoves, pažvelgdami į žaidimo istoriją ir kaip šalutinių užduočių dalį. Atrodo, kad kai kurios vietos yra nereikšmingos, tačiau gali apdovanoti žaidėjus specialia įranga ir daiktais.

Philippi Battlefield Cemetry is a burial location, found off a stretch on Route 97, for all those who participated in the Civil War, and also contains a museum. The inside of the museum contains a very lootable proposition and so do the graves outside.

Philippi Battlefield Cemetery, a place created to bury and honor the remains of the fallen soldiers. It is located on the northeast side of Wavy Willard's Water Park and beside the Palace of the Winding Path.

Quests in Philippi Battlefield Cemetery

The following quests are related to this location

Enemies in Philippi Battlefield Cemetery

The threat level of Philippi Battlefield Cemetery is 10-25. The following Enemies inhabit this location


Philippi (42 BCE)

Battle of Philippi (42 BCE): decisive battle in the war between the republican assassins of Caesar and his avengers, the triumvirs, who won. As a consequence, Rome was destine to become a monarchy.

Santrauka

In October 42 BCE, two Roman armies approached each other near Philippi, a city in Macedonia. The first army belonged to Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Julius Caesar and defenders of the Roman republic It arrived from the southeast. A bit later, the triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian arrived from the west, wishing to avenge the assassination of Caesar. The first army used Neapolis (modern Kavala) as its supply base, and had to cross mountains to get its food to the battlefield the second army used Amphipolis, which was even more distant. The clash was in the first place a struggle of the supply corpses.

Because Brutus and Cassius had occupied the best positions (two little hills west of Philippi), Mark Antony tried to circumvent Philippi by building a causeway through the wetlands to the south of the city. Had he succeeded, he would have cut off his enemies' line of communication. But Cassius discovered it and built a transverse dam. While his opponent was thus occupied, Mark Antony unexpectedly ordered his men to storm Cassius' camp. They were very successful, and Cassius, believing that all was lost, committed suicide before he had learned that Brutus had at the same time defeated the army of Octavian and had captured the camp of Mark Antony and Octavian. In other words, both sides had won a victory and suffered a defeat.

A second clash was decisive: a couple of days later, Mark Antony and Octavian were able to lure Brutus into a battle that he ought not have accepted. In the end, the triumvirs were victorious.

Eleven years later, Octavian defeated Mark Antony at Actium and became sole ruler of the Roman world, accepting the surname Augustus.The double battle at Philippi had been more than just a fight between rival factions: it had been about the future of the republic, which would become a monarchy.

Below is the account of the battle by Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165), the author of a Roman History and one of the most underestimated of all Greek historians. His history of the Roman Civil Wars survives in its entirety. The fourth book, section 105-138, contains an excellent account of the double battle of Philippi.

The translation was made by Horace White notes by Jona Lendering.

Appianas, Civil Wars, 4.105-138

[105] Philippi is a city that was formerly called Datus, and before that Crenides, note ["Wells".] because there are many springs bubbling around a hill there. Philip note [King Philip II of Macedonia.] fortified it because he considered it an excellent stronghold against the Thracians, and named it from himself, Philippi. It is situated on a precipitous hill and its size is exactly that of the summit of the hill. There are woods on the north through which Rhascupolis note [Their guide, a Thracian.] led the army of Brutus and Cassius. On the south is a marsh extending to the sea. On the east are the gorges of the Sapaeans and Corpileans, and on the west a very fertile and beautiful plain extending to the towns of Murcinus and Drabiscus and the river Strymon, about 65 kilometers. Here it is said that Persephone was carried off while gathering flowers, and here is the river Zygactes, in crossing which they say that the yoke of the god's chariot was broken, from which circumstance the river received its name. The plain slopes downward so that movement is easy to those descending from Philippi, but toilsome to those going up from Amphipolis.

/> The battlefield seen from Philipi, with the two hills in the distance.

[§106] There is another hill not far from Philippi which is called the Hill of Dionysus, in which are gold mines called the Asyla. Two kilometer farther are two other hills, at a distance of 3¼ kilometer from Philippi itself and 1½ kilometer from each other. On these hills Cassius and Brutus were encamped, the former on the southern and the latter on the northern of the two. They did not advance against the retreating army of Norbanus note [Mark Antony's deputy.] because they learned that Antony was approaching, Octavian having been left behind at Epidamnus on account of sickness. The plain was admirably suited for fighting and the hill-tops for camping, since on one side of them were marshes and ponds stretching as far as the river Strymon, and on the other gorges destitute of roads and impassable. Between these hills, 1½ kilometer apart, lay the main pass from Europe to Asia as between gates. Across this space they built a fortification from camp to camp, leaving a gate in the middle, so that the two camps became virtually one. Alongside this fortification flowed a river, which is called by some the Ganga and by others the Gangites, and behind it was the sea, where they could keep their supplies and shipping in safety. Their depot was on the island of Thasos, 20 kilometer distant, and their triremes were anchored at Neapolis, at a distance of 12½ kilometer.

[§107] Brutus and Cassius were satisfied with the position and proceeded to fortify their camps, but Antony moved his army rapidly, wishing to anticipate the enemy in occupying Amphipolis as an advantageous position for the battle. When he found it already fortified by Norbanus he was delighted. Leaving his supplies there and one legion, under the command of Pinarius, he advanced with the greatest boldness and encamped in the plain at a distance of only 1½ kilometer from the enemy, and straightway the superiority of the enemy's situation and the inferiority of his own became evident. The former were on elevated ground, the latter on the plain the former procured fuel from the mountains, the latter from the marsh the former obtained water from a river, the latter from wells freshly dug the former drew their supplies from Thasos, requiring carriage of only a few kilometers, while the latter was 65 kilometers from Amphipolis. Still it seems that Antony was compelled to do as he did, for there was no other hill, and the rest of the plain, lying in a sort of hollow, was liable to inundation at times from the river for which reason also the fountains of water were found fresh and abundant in the wells that were dug there. Antony's audacity, although he was driven to it by necessity, confounded the enemy when they saw him pitch his camp so near them and in such a contemptuous manner as soon as he arrived. He raised numerous towers and fortified himself on all sides with ditches, wall, and palisade. The enemy also completed their fortification wherever their work was defective. Cassius, observing that Antony's advance was reckless, extended his fortification at the only place where it was still wanting, from the camp to the marsh, a space which had been overlooked on account of its narrowness, so that there was now nothing unfortified except the cliffs on Brutus' flank and the marsh on that of Cassius and the sea lying against the marsh. In the center everything was intercepted by ditch, palisade, wall, and gates.

[§108] In this way both sides had fortified themselves, in the meantime making trial of each other by cavalry skirmishes only. When they had done all that they intended and Octavian had arrived (for, although he was not yet strong enough for a battle, he could be carried along the ranks reclining in a litter), he and Antony prepared for battle forthwith. Brutus and Cassius also drew out their forces on their higher ground, but did not come down. They decided not to give battle, hoping to wear out the enemy by want of supplies.

There were nineteen legions of infantry on each side, but those of Brutus and Cassius lacked something of being full, while those of Octavian and Antony were complete. Of cavalry the latter had 13,000 and the former 20,000, including Thracians on both sides. Thus in the multitude of men, in the spirit and bravery of the commanders, and in arms and munitions, was beheld a most magnificent display on both sides yet they did nothing for several days.

Brutus and Cassius did not wish to engage, but rather to continue wasting the enemy by lack of provisions, since they themselves had abundance from Asia, all transported by the sea from close at hand, all the enemy had nothing in abundance and nothing from their own territory. They could obtain nothing through merchants in Egypt, since that country was exhausted by famine, nor from Spain or Africa by reason of Pompeius, note [Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great.] nor from Italy by reason of Murcus and Domitius. Macedonia and Thessaly, which were the only countries then supplying them, wouldn't suffice much longer.

[§109] Mindful chiefly of these facts Brutus and his generals protracted the war. Antony, fearful of the delay, resolved to force them to an engagement. He formed a plan of effecting a passage through the marsh secretly, if possible, in order to get in the enemy's rear without their knowledge, and cut off their avenue of supply from Thasos. So he arrayed his forces for battle with all the standards set each day, so that it might seem that his entire army was drawn up, while a part of his force was really working night and day making a narrow passage in the marsh, cutting down reeds, throwing up a causeway upon them, and flanking it with stone, so that the earth should not fall away, and bridging the deeper parts with piles, all in the profoundest silence. The reeds, which were still growing around his passage-way, prevented the enemy from seeing his work.

After working ten days in this manner he sent a column of troops by night suddenly, who occupied all the strong positions within his lines and built several redoubts at the same time. Cassius was amazed at the ingenuity as well as the secrecy of this work, and he formed the counter design of cutting Antony off from his redoubts. He carried a transverse wall across the whole marsh from his camp to the sea, cutting and bridging in the same manner as Antony had done, and setting up the palisade on the top of his mounds, thus intercepting the passage made by Antony, so that those inside could not escape to him, nor he render assistance to them.

[§110] When Antony saw this about noon, instantly, with rage and fury, he turned his own army, which was facing in another direction, and led it against the cross-fortification of Cassius between his camp and the marsh. He carried tools and ladders intending to take it by storm and force his way into Cassius' camp.

While he was making this audacious charge, obliquely and up hill, across the space that separated the two armies, the soldiers of Brutus were provoked at the insolence of the enemy in dashing boldly athwart their front while they stood there armed. So they charged on their own account, without any order from their officers, and killed with much slaughter (as natural in a flank attack) all they came up with. The battle once begun they charged upon the army of Octavian, also, which was drawn up opposite, put it to flight, pursued it to the camp which Antony and Octavian had in common, and captured it. Octavian himself was not there, having been warned in a dream to beware of that day, as he has himself written in his Memoirs.

/> The battlefield, seen from Octavian's camp

[§111] When Antony saw that battle was joined he was delighted because he had forced it, for he had been in trouble about his supplies he judged it inadvisable to turn again toward the plain, lest in making the evolution his ranks should be thrown into disorder. So he continued his charge, as he had begun it, on the run, and advanced under a shower of missiles, and forced his way till he struck the troop of Cassius which had not moved from its assigned position and which was amazed at this unexpected audacity. He courageously broke this advance guard and dashed against the fortification that ran between the marsh and the camp, demolished the palisade, filled up the ditch, undermined the works, and killed the men at the gates, disregarding the missiles hurled from the wall, until he had forced an entrance through the gates, and others had made breaches in the fortification, and still others had climbed up on the débris. All this was done so swiftly that those who had just now captured the fortification met Cassius' men, who had been at work in the marsh, coming to the assistance of their friends, and, with a powerful charge, put them to flight, drove them into the marsh, and then at once wheeled against the camp of Cassius itself. These were only the men who had scaled the fortification with Antony, the remainder being engaged in conflict with the enemy on the other side of the wall

[§112] As the camp was in a strong position it was guarded by only a few men, for which reason Antony easily overcame them. Cassius' soldiers outside the camp were already being beaten, and when they saw that the camp was taken they scattered in disorderly flight. The victory was complete and alike on either side, Brutus defeating the enemy's left wing and taking their camp, while Antony overcame Cassius and ravaged his camp with irresistible courage. There was great slaughter on both sides, but by reason of the extent of the plain and the clouds of dust they were ignorant of each other's fate. When they learned the facts they recalled their scattered forces. Those who returned resembled porters rather than soldiers, and did not at once perceive each other nor see anything clearly. Otherwise either party would have flung down their burdens and fiercely attacked the others carrying off plunder in this disorderly fashion. According to conjecture the number of killed on the side of Cassius, including slave shield-bearers, was about 9,000, and on the side of Octavian double that number.

[§113] When Cassius was driven out of his fortifications and no longer had even a camp to go to, he hurried up the hill to Philippi and took a survey of the situation. As he could not see accurately on account of the dust, nor could he see everything, but only that his own camp was captured, he ordered Pindarus, his shield-bearer, to fall upon him and kill him. While Pindarus still delayed a messenger ran up and said that Brutus had been victorious on the other wing, and was ravaging the enemy's camp. Cassius merely answered, "Tell him that I pray his victory may be complete." Then, turning to Pindarus, he said, "What are you waiting for? Why do you not deliver me from my shame?" Then, as he presented his throat, Pindarus slew him.

This is one account of the death of Cassius. Others say that as some horsemen were approaching, bringing the good news from Brutus, he took them for enemies and sent Titinius to find out exactly that the horsemen pressed around Titinius joyfully as a friend of Cassius, and at the same time uttered loud hurrahs that Cassius, thinking that Titinius had fallen into the hands of enemies, said, "Have I waited to see my friend torn from me?" and that he withdrew to a tent with Pindarus, and Pindarus was never seen afterward. For this reason some persons think that he killed Cassius without orders.

Thus Cassius ended his life on his birthday, on which, as it happened, the battle was fought, and Titinius killed himself because he had been too late.

[§114] Brutus wept over the dead body of Cassius and called him the last of the Romans, meaning that his equal in virtue would never exist again. He reproached him for haste and precipitancy, but at the same time he esteemed him happy because he was freed from cares and troubles, "which," he said, "are leading Brutus, whither, ah, whither?"

He delivered the corpse to friends to be buried secretly lest the army should be moved to tears at the sight and himself passed the whole night, without food and without care for his own person, restoring order in Cassius' army. In the morning the enemy drew up their army in order of battle, so that they might not seem to have been beaten. Brutus, perceiving their design, exclaimed, "Let us arm also and make believe that we have suffered defeat." So he put his forces in line, and the enemy withdrew. Brutus said to his friends, jestingly, "They challenged us when they thought we were tired out, but they dared not put us to the test."

[The story is interrupted by a description of a naval engagement in the Adriatic Sea.]

Map of the second battle of Philippi

[§121] Mark Antony marshalled his men again on the following day. As the enemy would not come down even then, he was disgusted, but he continued to lead out his men daily. Brutus had a part of his army in line lest he should be compelled to fight and with another part he guarded the road by which his supplies were conveyed.

There was a hill very near the camp of Cassius, which it was difficult for an enemy to occupy, because by reason of its nearness, it was exposed to arrows from the camp. Nevertheless, Cassius had placed a guard on it, lest any one should make bold to attack it. As it had been abandoned by Brutus, the army of Octavian occupied it by night with four legions and protected themselves with wickerwork and hides against the enemy's bowmen. When this position was secured they transferred ten other legions a distance of more than a kilometer toward the sea. 750 meter farther they placed two legions, in order to extend themselves in this manner quite to the sea, with a view of breaking through the enemy's line either along the sea itself, or through the marsh, or in some other way, and to cut off their supplies. Brutus counteracted this movement by building fortified posts opposite their camps and in other ways.

@@@[§122] The task of Octavian and Antony became pressing, hunger was already felt, and in view of the magnitude of the coming famine the fear of it grew upon them more and more each day, for Thessaly could no longer furnish sufficient supplies, nor could they hope for anything from the sea, which was commanded by the enemy everywhere. News of their recent disaster in the Adriatic having now reached both armies, it caused them fresh alarm, as also did the approach of winter while they were quartered in this muddy plain. Moved by these considerations they sent a legion of troops to Achaea at once to collect all the food they could find and send it to them in haste. As they could not rest under so great an impending danger, and as their other artifices were of no avail, they ceased offering battle in the plain and advanced with shouts to the enemy's fortifications, and challenged Brutus to fight, reviling and scoffing at him, intending not so much to besiege him as by a mad assault to force him to an engagement.

[§123] But Brutus adhered to his original intention, and all the more because he knew of the famine and of his own success in the Adriatic, and of the enemy's desperation for want of supplies. He preferred to endure a siege, or anything else rather than come to an engagement with men desperate for hunger, and whose hopes rested solely on fighting because they despaired of every other resource. His soldiers, however, without reflection, entertained a different opinion. They took it hard that they should be shut up, idle and cowardly, like women, within their fortifications. Their officers also, although they approved of Brutus' design, were vexed, thinking that in the present temper of the army they might overpower the enemy more quickly. Brutus himself was the cause of these murmurs, being of a gentle and kindly disposition toward all - not like Cassius, who had been austere and imperious in every way, for which reason the army obeyed his orders promptly, not interfering with his authority, and not criticising them when they had learned them. But in the case of Brutus they expected nothing else than to share the command with him on account of his mildness of temper. Finally, the soldiers began more and more openly to collect together in companies and groups and to ask each other, "Why does our general put a stigma upon us? How have we offended lately - we who conquered the enemy and put him to flight we who slaughtered those opposed to us and took their camp?" Brutus took no notice of these murmurs, nor did he call an assembly, lest he should be forced from his position, contrary to his dignity, by the unreasoning multitude, and especially by the mercenaries, who, like fickle slaves seeking new masters, always rest their hopes of safety on desertion to the enemy.

[§124] His officers also kept irritating him and urging him to make use of the eagerness of the army now, which would speedily bring glorious results. If the battle should turn out adversely, they could fall back to their walls and put the same fortifications between themselves and the enemy. Brutus was especially vexed with these, for they were his officers, and he grieved that they, who were exposed to the same peril as himself, should capriciously side with the soldiers in preferring a quick and doubtful chance to a victory without danger but, to the ruin of himself and them, he yielded, chiding them with these words, "I seem likely to carry on war like Pompey the Great, not so much commanding now as commanded."

I think that Brutus restricted himself to these words in order to conceal his greatest fear, lest those of his soldiers who had formerly served under Caesar should become disaffected and desert to the enemy. This both himself and Cassius had suspected from the beginning, and they had been careful not to give any excuse for such disaffection toward themselves.

[§125] So Brutus led out his army unwillingly and formed them in line of battle before his walls, ordering them not to advance very far from the hill so that they might have a safe retreat if necessary and a good position for hurling darts at the enemy. In each army the men exchanged exhortations with each other. There was great eagerness for battle, and exaggerated confidence. On the one side was the fear of famine, on the other a proper shame that they had constrained their general to fight when he still favoured delay, and fear lest they should come short of their promises and prove weaker than their boastings, and expose themselves to the charge of rashness instead of winning praise for good counsel, and because Brutus also, riding through the ranks on horseback, showed himself before them with a solemn countenance and reminded them of these things in such words as the opportunity offered. "You have chosen to fight," he said "you have forced me to battle when I could conquer otherwise. Do not falsify my hopes or your own. You have the advantage of the higher ground and everything safe in your rear. The enemy's position is the one of peril because he lies between you and famine."

With these words he passed on, the soldiers telling him to trust them and echoing his words with shouts of confidence.

[§126] Octavian and Antony rode through their own ranks shaking hands with those nearest them, urging them even more solemnly to do their duty and not concealing the danger of famine, because they believed that that would be an opportune incitement to bravery. "Soldiers," they said, "we have found the enemy. We have before us those whom we sought to catch outside of their fortifications. Let none of you shame his own challenge or prove unequal to his own threat. Let no one prefer hunger, that unmanageable and distressing evil, to the walls and bodies of the enemy, which yield to bravery, to the sword, to despair. Our situation at this moment is so pressing that nothing can be postponed till tomorrow, but this very day must decide for us either a complete victory or an honourable death. If you conquer you gain in one day and by one blow provisions, money, ships, and camps, and the prizes of victory offered by ourselves. Such will be the result if, from our first onset upon them, we are mindful of the necessities urging us on and if, after breaking their ranks, we immediately cut them off from their gates and drive them upon the rocks or into the plain, so that the war may not spring up again or these enemies get away for another period of idleness - the only warriors, surely, who are so weak as to rest their hopes, not on fighting, but on declining to fight."

[§127] In this way Octavian and Antony roused the spirit of those with whom they came in contact. The emulation of the troops was excited to show themselves worthy of their commanders and also to escape the danger of famine, which had been greatly augmented by the naval disaster in the Adriatic. They preferred, if necessary, to suffer in battle, with the hope of success, rather than be wasted by an irresistible foe.

Inspired by these thoughts, which each man exchanged with his neighbour, the spirit of the two armies was wonderfully raised and both were filled with undaunted courage. They did not now remember that they were fellow-citizens of their enemies, but hurled threats at each other as though they had been enemies by birth and descent, so much did the anger of the moment extinguish reason and nature in them. Both sides divined equally that this day and this battle would decide the fate of Rome completely and so indeed it did.

[§128] The day was consumed in preparations till the ninth hour, when two eagles fell upon each other and fought in the space between the armies, amid the profoundest silence. When the one on the side of Brutus took flight his enemies raised a great shout and battle was joined. The onset was superb and terrible. They had little need of arrows, stones, or javelins, which are customary in war, for they did not resort to the usual manoeuvres and tactics of battles, but, coming to close combat with naked swords, they slew and were slain, seeking to break each other's ranks. On the one side it was a fight for self-preservation rather than victory: on the other for victory and for the satisfaction of the general who had been forced to fight against his will. The slaughter and the groans were terrible. The bodies of the fallen were carried back and others stepped into their places from the reserves. The generals flew hither and thither overlooking everything, exciting the men by their ardour, exhorting the toilers to toil on, and relieving those who were exhausted so that there was always fresh courage at the front.

Finally, the soldiers of Octavian, either from fear of famine, or by the good fortune of Octavian himself (for certainly the soldiers of Brutus were not blameworthy), pushed back the enemy's line as though they were turning round a very heavy machine. The latter were driven back step by step, slowly at first and without loss of courage. Presently their ranks broke and they retreated more rapidly, and then the second and third ranks in the rear retreated with them, all mingled together in disorder, crowded by each other and by the enemy, who pressed upon them without ceasing until it became plainly a flight. The soldiers of Octavian, then especially mindful of the order they had received, seized the gates of the enemy's fortification at great risk to themselves because they were exposed to missiles from above and in front, but they prevented a great many of the enemy from gaining entrance. These fled, some to the sea, and some through the river Zygactes to the mountains.

[§129] The enemy having been routed, the generals divided the remainder of the work between themselves, Octavian to capture those who should break out of the camp and to watch the main camp, while Antony was everything, and attacked everywhere, falling upon the fugitives and those who still held together, and upon their other camping-places, crushing all alike with vehement impetuosity. Fearing lest the leaders should escape him and collect another army, he despatched cavalry upon the roads and outlets of the field of battle to capture those who were trying to escape. These divided their work some of them hurried up the mountain with Rhascus, the Thracian, who was sent with them on account of his knowledge of the roads. They surrounded the fortified positions and escarpments, hunted down the fugitives, and kept watch upon those inside. Others pursued Brutus himself. Lucilius seeing them rushing on furiously surrendered himself, pretending to be Brutus, and asked them to take him to Antony instead of Octavian for which reason chiefly he was believed to be Brutus trying to avoid his implacable enemy. When Antony heard that they were bringing him, he went to meet him, with a pause to reflect on the fortune, the dignity, and the virtue of the man, and thinking how he should receive Brutus. As he was approaching, Lucilius presented himself, and said with perfect boldness, "You have not captured Brutus, nor will virtue ever be taken prisoner by baseness. I deceived these men and so here I am." Antony, observing that the horsemen were ashamed of their mistake, consoled them, saying, "The game you have caught for me is not worse, but better than you think - as much better as a friend is than an enemy." Then he committed Lucilius to the care of one of his friends, and later took him into his own service and employed him in a confidential capacity.

[§130] Brutus fled to the mountains with a considerable force, intending to return to his camp by night, or to move down to the sea. But since all the roads were encompassed by guards he passed the night under arms with all his party, and it is said that, looking up to the stars, he exclaimed:

referring to Antony. It is said that Antony himself repeated this saying at a later period in the midst of his own dangers, regretting that when he might have associated himself with Cassius and Brutus, he had become the tool of Octavian. At the present time, however, Antony passed the night under arms with his outposts over against Brutus, fortifying himself with a breastwork of dead bodies and spoils collected together. Octavius toiled til midnight and then retired on account of his illness, leaving Norbanus to watch the enemy's camp.

[§131] On the following day Brutus, seeing the enemy still lying in wait for him, and having fewer than four full legions, which had ascended the mountain with him, thought it best not to address himself to his troops, but to their officers, who were ashamed and repentant of their fault. To them he sent to put them to the test and to learn whether they were willing to break through the enemy's lines and regain their own camp, which was still held by their troops who had been left there. These officers, though they had rushed to battle unadvisedly, had been of good courage for the most part, but now, for some divine infatuation was already upon them, gave to their general the undeserved answer that he should look out for himself, that they had tempted fortune many times, and that they would not throw away the last remaining hope of accommodation. Then Brutus said to his friends, "I am no longer useful to my country if such is the temper of these men," and calling Strato, the Epirote, who was one of his friends, gave him the order to stab him. While Strato still urged him to deliberate, Brutus called one of his servants. Then Strato said, "Your friend shall not come short of your servants in executing your last commands, if the decision is actually reached." With these words he thrust his sword into the side of Brutus, who did not shrink or turn away.

[§132] So died Cassius and Brutus, two most noble and illustrious Romans, and of incomparable virtue, but for one crime for although they belonged to the party of Pompey the Great, and had been the enemies, in peace and in war, of Gaius Julius Caesar, he made them his friends, and from being friends he was treating them as sons. The Senate at all times had a peculiar attachment to them, and commiseration for them when they fell into misfortune. On account of those two it granted amnesty to all the assassins, and when they took flight it bestowed governorships on them in order that they should not be exiles not that it was disregardful of Gaius Caesar or rejoiced at what had happened to him, for it admired his bravery and good fortune, gave him a public funeral at his death, ratified his acts, and had for a long time awarded the magistracies and governorships to his nominees, considering that nothing better could be devised than what he proposed. But its zeal for these two men and its solicitude for them brought it under suspicion of complicity in the assassination - so much were those two held in honour by all. By the most illustrious of the exiles they were more honoured than Sextus Pompeius, although he was nearer and not irreconcilable to the triumvirs, while they were farther away and irreconcilable.

[§133] When it became necessary for them to take up arms, two whole years had not elapsed ere they had brought together upward of twenty legions of infantry and something like 20,000 cavalry, and 200 ships of war, with corresponding apparatus and a vast amount of money, some of it from willing and some from unwilling contributors. They carried on wars with many peoples and with cities and with men of the adverse faction successfully. They brought under their sway all the nations from Macedonia to the Euphrates. Those whom they had fought against they had brought into alliance with them and had found them most faithful. They had had the services of the independent kings and princes, and in some small measure even of the Parthians, who were enemies of the Romans but they did not wait for them to come and take part in the decisive battle, lest this barbarous and hostile race should become accustomed to encounters with the Romans.

Most extraordinary of all was the fact that the greater part of their army had been the soldiers of Gaius Caesar and wonderfully attached to him, yet they were won over by the very murderers of Caesar and followed them more faithfully against Caesar's son than they had followed Antony, who was Caesar's companion in arms and colleague for not one of them deserted Brutus and Cassius even when they were vanquished while some of them had abandoned Antony at Brundusium before the war began. The reason for their service, both under Pompey aforetime and now under Brutus and Cassius, was not their own interest, but the cause of democracy a specious name indeed, but always hurtful. Both of the leaders, when they thought they could no longer be useful to their country, alike despised their own lives. In that which related to their cares and labours Cassius gave his attention strictly to war, like a gladiator to his antagonist. Brutus, wherever he might be, wanted to see and hear everything, having been a philosopher of no mean note.

[§134] Against all these virtues and merits must be set down the crime against Caesar, which was not an ordinary or a small one, for it was committed unexpectedly against a friend, ungratefully against a benefactor who had spared them in war, and nefariously against the head of the state, in the senate-house, against a pontiff clothed in his sacred vestments, against a ruler without equal, who was most serviceable above all other men to Rome and to its empire. For these reasons Heaven was incensed against them and often forewarned them of their doom. When Cassius was performing a lustration for his army his lictor placed his garland upon him wrong side up a Victory, a gilded offering of Cassius, fell down. Many birds hovered over his camp, but uttered no sound, and swarms of bees continually settled upon it. While Brutus was celebrating his birthday at Sams it is said that in the midst of the feast, although not a ready man with such quotations, he shouted out this verse without any apparent cause:

Once when he was about to cross from Asia to Europe with his army, and while he was awake at night and the light was burning low, he beheld an apparition of extraordinary form standing by him, and when he boldly asked who of men or gods it might be, the spectre answered, "I am thy evil genius, Brutus. I shall appear to thee again at Philippi." And it is said that it did appear to him before the last battle.

When the soldiers were going out to the fight an Ethiopian met them in front of the gates, and as they considered this a bad omen they immediately cut him in pieces. It was due, too, to something more than human, no doubt, that Cassius gave way to despair without reason after a drawn battle, and that Brutus was forced from his policy of wise delay to an engagement with men who were pressed by hunger, while he himself had supplies in abundance and the command of the sea, so that his calamity proceeded rather from his own troops than from the enemy. Although they had participated in many engagements, they never received any hurt in battle, but both became the slayers of themselves, as they had been of Caesar. Such was the punishment that overtook Cassius and Brutus.

[§135] Antony found the body of Brutus, wrapped in the best purple garment, burned it, and sent the ashes to his mother, Servilia, Brutus' army, when it learned of his death, sent envoys to Octavian and Antony and obtained pardon, and was divided between their armies. It consisted of about 14,000. Besides these a large number who were in the forts surrendered. The forts themselves and the enemy's camp were given to the soldiers of Octavian and Antony to be plundered. Of the distinguished men in Brutus' camp some perished in the battles, others killed themselves as the two generals had done, others purposely continued fighting till death. Among these men of note were Lucius Cassius, a nephew of the great Cassius, and Cato, the son of Cato. The latter charged upon the enemy many times then, when his men began to retreat, he threw off his helmet, either that he might be recognized, or be easily hit, or for both reasons. Labeo, a man renowned for learning, father of the Labeo who is still celebrated as a jurisconsult, dug a trench in his tent the size of his body, gave orders to his slaves in reference to the remainder of his affairs, made such arrangements as he desired for his wife and children, and gave letters to his domestics to carry to them. Then, taking his most faithful slave by the right hand and whirling him around, as is the Roman custom in granting freedom, he handed him a sword as he turned, and presented his throat. And so his tent became his tomb.

[§136] Rhascus, the Thracian, brought many troops from the mountains. He asked and received as his reward the pardon of his brother, Rhascupolis, from which it was made plain that from the beginning these Thracians had not been at variance with each other, but that seeing two great and hostile armies coming into conflict near their territory, they divided the chances of fortune in such a way that the victor might save the vanquished. Porcia, the wife of Brutus and sister of the younger Cato, when she learned that both had died in the manner described, although very strictly watched by domestics, seized some hot embers that they were carrying on a brazier, and swallowed them. Of the other members of the nobility who escaped to Thasos some took ship from thence, others committed themselves with the remains of the army to the judgment of Messala Corvinus and Lucius Bibulus, men of equal rank, to do for all what they should decide to do for themselves. These came to an arrangement with Antony and Octavian, whereby they delivered to Antony on his arrival at Thasos the money and arms, besides abundant supplies and a great quantity of war material, there in store.

[§137] Thus did Octavian and Antony by perilous daring and by two infantry engagements achieve a success, the like of which was never before known for never before had such numerous and powerful Roman armies come in conflict with each other. These soldiers were not enlisted from the ordinary conscription, but were picked men. They were not new levies, but under long drill and arrayed against each other, not against foreign or barbarous races. Speaking the same language and using the same tactics, being of like discipline and power of endurance, they were for these reasons what we may call mutually invincible. Nor was there ever such fury and daring in war as here, when citizens contended against citizens, families against families, and fellow-soldiers against each other. The proof of this is that, taking both battles into the account, the number of the slain even among the victors appeared to be not fewer than among the vanquished.

[§138] Thus the army of Antony and Octavian confirmed the prediction of their generals, passing in one day and by one blow from extreme danger and famine and fear of destruction to lavish wealth, absolute security, and glorious victory. Moreover, that result came about which Antony and Octavian had predicted as they advanced into battle. Their form of government was decided by that day's work chiefly, and they have not gone back to democracy yet. Nor was there any further need of similar contentions with each other, except the strife between Antony and Octavian not long afterward, which was the last that took place between Romans. The events that happened after the death of Brutus, under Sextus Pompeius and the friends of Cassius and Brutus, who escaped with the very considerable remains of their extensive war material, were not to be compared to the former in daring or in the devotion of men, cities, and armies to their leaders nor did any of the nobility, nor the Senate, nor the same glory, attend them as attended Brutus and Cassius.


Filipas

Mūsų redaktoriai peržiūrės, ką pateikėte, ir nuspręs, ar peržiūrėti straipsnį.

Filipas, modernus Fílippoi, hill town in the nomós (department) of Kavála, Greece, overlooking the coastal plain and the bay at Neapolis (Kavála). Philip II of Macedon fortified the Thasian settlement called Crenides in 356 bc to control neighbouring gold mines. He derived a fortune from the gold mines but treated the city, renamed after him, as a “free city” with its own Greek constitution.

In 42 bc Philippi was the site of the decisive Roman battle in which Mark Antony and Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) defeated Brutus and Cassius, the leading assassins of Julius Caesar. Brutus and Cassius, whose forces roughly equaled those of their opponents, lay astride the Via Egnatia to the west of Philippi, their position being partly protected by a marsh. Antony made a successful attack on the camp of Cassius, who, not knowing that Brutus’s forces had successfully assailed Octavian’s camp, committed suicide. About three weeks later, on October 23, Brutus, against his better judgment, fought a second action in which he was routed despairing of restoring the republican cause, he too took his own life. After the battle a colony for Roman veterans was started at Philippi, and this was later reinforced by Augustus.

The Letter of Paul to the Philippians was addressed to Christian converts in Philippi whom he had visited in his second and third missionary journeys. Many ruins, especially of the imperial epoch, are spread over the site, most notably a theatre and four basilicas.

Šį straipsnį neseniai peržiūrėjo ir atnaujino Amy Tikkanen, pataisymų vadovė.